Individualized techniques based upon the size, shape, diameter and projection of the nipples are completed alone under local anesthesia or combined with other breast surgeries, and may or may not require an alteration in the diameter or shape of the pigmented areolar skin surrounding the nipple. The array of methods are designed to have minimal visible scarring, with little loss of sensation or ability to nurse in the future.
Nipple reduction surgery is indicated for women who experience physical discomfort or embarrassment from elongated nipples. Changes in the size and shape of nipples may result from breast feeding, weight gain, piercings, etc., or may simply be genetic. Typically either a small segment of tissue is removed or a ring of tissue is removed to permit telescoping the nipple back towards the breast. Excessive nipple diameter can also be reduced and restore aesthetic balance to the breasts.
Repair of inverted nipples is commonly performed on one or both nipples that do not project forward. Some patients experience a low projecting nipple at rest that can project forward at other times, while some patients have low projecting nipples constantly. As such, techniques vary from local tissue rearrangement to release of tethering bands of tissue.